Thursday, 10 April 2014

Memory Duration STM/LTM Revision

STM Duration

Peterson and Peterson (1959)
Aim: To see how long items could remain in STM without rehearsal.
Procedure: Participants were presented with a Consonant trigram. Participants were then asked to count backwards in threes from specified number i.e 451. This was to stop them rehearsing the trigram. After intervals of 3,6,9,12,15 or 18 seconds, participants were asked to stop counting and to repeat the trigram. This procedure was repeated several times using different trigrams on each presentation. 
Results: Participants were able to recall about 80% of trigrams after a three second interval but their recall became progressively worse as the time intervals lengthened until, after 18 seconds, they could recall fewer than 10% correctly.
Conclusions: P&P concluded that information disappears or decays very rapidly from STM when rehearsal is prevented.
Evaluation: Lab so highly controlled, uses repeated measures design so avoids individual differences.
-However, trigrams are artificial things to remember and may not reflect everyday life.
-It is possible that the loss of information was more to do with capacity limitations than duration. The subsequent counting task might have pushed out (displaced the trigram).
-It is also possible that trigrams presented on earlier trails caused confusion (proactive interference*) for the participants and so later trigrams are incorrectly recalled.

*Proactive Interference: where things that have already been learned make it harder to learn new things

Extra Studies: Bherer et al. (2002)
Aim: to see if age and education affected STM duration
Procedure: recruited 24 young adults (mean age 25.8) and 24 older adults (mean 67.2 years) and further divided each group by educational level i.e lower being fewer than 13 years of education and higher being 13 years or more. They adapted the PP technique using oral presentation and recall of trigrams at 10-second retention intervals. Repeated Measures were used, in which there was a control condition (no prevention of rehearsal) and two experimental conditions (prevention of rehearsal by requiring participants to carry out either a numerical task or meaningless verbal task, such as saying blah blah). 
Results: In healthy adults age had no effect on performance level but educational level did. The lower education level performed less well than the more educated group across all conditions. Although both education levels were affected by the interference tasks, their impact on the higher education level by group's performance was impaired more by the numerical verbal task.

Factors affecting duration in STM:
Rehearsal: we can extend the duration of STM by rehearsing information. For example, if we look up a phone number in a directory, we tend to repeat it over in our heads in order to hold it in our memory for long enough to dial it correctly 
Intention to recall: it seems to make a difference whether we are making a conscious effort to recall material or not. Sebrechts et al. (1989) tested serial recall sets of three familiar English nouns. In the condition where pps were not expected to be asked to have to remember the words, correct recall fell to 1% after only four seconds.
Amount of information to be recalled: Murdock (1961) adopted the Peterson and Peterson technique but used either a single, three letter word such as cat or a set of 3 unrelated words such as pen, and lid. Unrelated words produced the same serial position curve while letters that made a recognisable word, recall was remarkably resistant to decay. Even though rehearsal had been prevented, accurate recall level was about 90 % after 18 seconds. It seems that the important factor is the number of chunks rather than the number of individual letters. 

LTM Duration 
Long Term Memory can hold limitless of information anything from a minute to a lifetime. It is difficult to measure but there is one famous study by Bahrick (1975).
Aim: An attempt to explore the length of times memories can be retained.
Method: tested the memory of 392 graduates of an American High School for their former classmates. They used various memory tests including the recognition of classmates pictures, matching names to pictures and recalling names with no picture cue.
Results: Participants performed remarkably well up to about 34 years although performance was better on recognition tasks than on recall tasks. There was a dip in performance on all types of memory test after 47 years but it is difficult to decide whether this deficit is due to the passage of time or the ageing effects in the brains of older participants.

Factors affecting duration of LTM
Experimental techniques: people can remember things better if they are given cues rather than starting from scratch. As you can see from the Bahrick study, accuracy increased when measured by a recognition rather than a recall test. 
Depth of learning: people are more likely to remember things for longer if they have learned it very well in the first place . Bahrick and Hall (1991) tested long term memory for algebra and geometry. People who had only taken maths courses up to secondary school level showed steady decline in their recall accuracy over the years. However, students who had gone on to take a higher course in maths showed high levels of accurate recall as much as 55 years later.
Pattern of learning: Bahrick(1987) looked at people who had learned Spanish and found that vocabulary items learned over spaced sessions were retained for longer than vocabulary learned in intensive sessions.
Nature of Material to be Learned: Conway et al. (1991) tested Open University psychology students and found that certain subject topics were recalled more accurately over time. Statistics was an area that seemed to be particularly well retained possibly because it involves the acquisition of skills rather than facts. 

Tuesday, 18 March 2014

Memory Capacity Revision

It is generally accepted that LTM has an unlimited capacity. It is possible to lose things through processes such as decay and interference but the loss does not occur because of capacity limitations.

Researchers generally agree that STM has a limited capacity. If someone gives you a phone number to remember, it is impossible to recall it without rehearsal because STM has a limited capacity and items can get displaced. 

Jacobs devised one of the earliest attempts at measure the capacity of STM in 1887 called the digit span technique*. Jacobs found that on average, people could recall about 7 digits in this immediate serial recall task*.

George Miller
Wrote a famous article in 1956, called 'The Magical Number 7, Plus or Minus 2' in which he proposed that we can hold about 7 items in our STM, but there is a range of capacity between 5 and 9 items. 
Miller believed that our immediate memory span is determined by the number of 'chunks' of information we can hold rather than the number of individual letters or numerals. 
Also, memory span can be increased by chunking. 

Some psychologists have criticised Miller's concept of chunking for being too vague. Simon (1974) found that the span as measured in chunks depends on the amount of information contained in the chunk. He experimented with the immediate serial recall technique with one-syllable, two-syllable and three syllable, and for two and eight word phrases. 
He found that the span in chunks was less with larger chunks, i.e eight word phrases, than with smaller chunks. 

Glanzer and Razel (1974) used the recency effect rather than the digit span as a measure of the capacity of STM. They found that the recency effect 2.2 items when the stimulus material consisted of single, unrelated words, but increased to 1.5 sentences (i.e considerably more single words) when unfamiliar sentences were presented and to 2.2 proverbs when familiar proverbs (e.g. 'a stich in time saves nine') were used. 

Saturday, 8 March 2014

Neuropsychological Evidence for Differences Between STM and LTM

Some evidence for the difference between STM and LTM comes from case studies of people who have suffered brain damage. In these cases memory is selective; it affects one type of memory but not the other. 

Clive Wearing 
Wearing has an impaired short term memory and has a poor duration that can only hold information for 7 seconds (the average person has a duration of 18-30 seconds). Since his illness he cannot create any new memories and constantly feels like he has awoke from unconsciousness. Wearing contracted a form of amnesia after a herpes simplex (cold sore) spread to areas of his temporal lobes. 

Henry Molaison 
HM suffered from epilepsy and as a result underwent brain surgery to remove part of his temporal lobes and hippocampus. This alleviated his epilepsy but left him with severe memory deficits although his IQ remained above average. He was able to recall events in his early life but was unable to remember events for about 10 years before the surgery and could not learn or retain new information. He could remember approximately six numbers in the order they were presented suggesting his STM was okay. However, he would read the same magazine over and over again and not process the information into LTM, not realizing he had read it before. He was also unable to recognise psychologists who sent long periods of time with him. HM suffered from anterograde amnesia (the loss of ability to create new memories).

In both of these cases, episodic memory (the memory of autobiographical events times, places, associated emotions, and other contextual who, what, when, where, why knowledge that can be explicitly state) is lost. However Semantic memory ( which refers to the memory of meanings, understandings, and other concept-based knowledge, and underlies the conscious recollection of factual information and general knowledge about the world) is largely unaffected 

KF sustained brain injuries after a motorcycle accident. He appeared to have an intact LTM store in that he was able to learn new information and recall stored information. However, his STM was affected so that he had a recency effect of only one item. Also, although his visual information was on a normal level, he struggled with auditory and verbal information making conversation difficult. 

Alzeihmer's Patients
Patients with Alzheimer's disease have been found to have  low levels of a neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Drachman and Sahakian (1979) investigated this by administering a drug to a group of participants which blocks the action of acetylcholine in the brain. They then gave participants various memory tasks that tested either STM or LTM and compared their performance with a control group. They found that the experimental group performed normally on STM tasks but significantly more poorly in the LTM task.

Squire et al. found that the hippocampus is active in LTM tasks whereas areas in the prefrontal cortex are activated for STM tasks. 

Conclusions: what does this tell us?
-Amnesiacs tend to lose only one store suggesting that LTM and STM are separate
-However, it is more complicated as LTM seems to consist of more than one component (semantic and episodic). Plus, KF's case seems to suggest that STM is more complex than a single store.

Friday, 7 March 2014

The Distinction Between STM and LTM

When psychologists use the free recall technique it produces a characteristic serial curve. This is thought to be because words at the beginning of a list have been rehearsed and have passed to LTM meaning they can be recalled at the time of rehearsal (the Primacy effect). Words at the end are still circulating in STM and can be easily retrieved (recency effect). While words in the middle have had little time for rehearsal and have been displaced by later items in the list (asymptote) Glanzer and Cunitz (1966) showed this functional dissociation in their experiment. 

Glanzer and Cunitz (1966)
Aim: To find functional dissociation curve in STM and LTM
Procedure: There were two conditions in the experiment
- In Condition One, participants were asked to recall the words immediately after they had been presented
-In Condition Two, participants were given a distractor task after the words had been presented and had to count backwards in 3s for 30 seconds before they were asked to recall words. 
Results:In condition one they found the expected serial position curve. However, in condition 2, they found that the distractor task had been disrupted the recency effect and words from the last part of the list were not recalled well. 
Conclusions: They explained that the task of counting backwards had displaced the last few words in the list from the fragile STM but the task had not affected earlier words because they had been rehearsed and passed to LTM
Evaluation: Lab so highly controlled. However, does not represent how memory works in daily life. 
Researchers had to gain consent and debrief them afterwards so was ethical

Sensory Memory Revision

Sensory Memory act as a filter with each sense having its own brief storage system. Few if any will be remembered. Right now you are reading and this is a visual environmental stimuli. It appears to hold information for a fraction of a second and unless the information is unusual in anyway will not be recalled. However, if it is unusual it will be transferred to the short term memory store. Sensory memory therefore plays a vital role in filtering out the vast majority of useless stuff that impinges on our senses and enables us to focus our attention on important detail. 

Sperling (1960) 

Aim: To explore the capacity of sensory memory.
Procedure: Participants were asked to look at a chart for 50 milliseconds and were asked to freely recall any letters they remembered. They could usually recall 4 or 5 items.
In the second stage participants were asked to recall single rows when particular tones were heard (high for top row, middle tone for the middle tow and low tone for the bottom).
ResultsIn the second condition, participants were able to recall on average 3 items from whichever row was cued by the tone.
Conclusions:  Although in theory P's should remember more than the average 4 items, it is thought that the image of each item fades during the 50ms and the time it takes to report back recalled items. Therefore, sensory memory has a large capacity but most items fade before they can be processed.
Evaluation: Methodological: Lab high level of control, and replicable.

-items remain in sensory memory for a very brief period of time probably less than two seconds (or even less in the iconic store). 
-Information is in a relatively unprocessed form. It’s passively registered in sensory memory, we can’t control what enters it but we can actively select certain items for transmission to short term memory by paying attention to them. 
-There are different stores for different parts: iconic for visual, echoic for sound and haptic store for things we feel touch.